This and Modern Kakak are my attempts at doing a Tri-consontal language. In the vein of Hebrew or Arabic. Ancient was intended to be proto language that would evolve into modern. Again I didn't take this one very far.
* PHONOLOGY *
I - hid U -put
e -head o -boat
A -had a -hod
The stops are non-aspirated.
* PHONOTAX *
No consonant clusters are allowed.
Most Noun stems
are formed with a CVCVC
With Vowel Harmony - Front and Back
Most Verb stems
are formed with a CVCVC
Without Vowel Harmony.
* THE NOUN *
Nouns are words that represent things: inanimate objects, living things, or concepts. All nouns are given in the singular form, and plural forms of those nouns are produced by doubling the first letter and adding a /e/ or /o/ before them. I.e. sanut - dog ossanut-dogs
Nouns are further marked for case as follows.
ABS -0 (null) -sanut
DAT -e -o - sanuto - (given, fed, etc.) to the dog
LOC -A -a -sanuta -(in, on, etc.) the dog
ABL -Im -Un -sanutUn -(something is done) by the dog
GEN -Iz -Us -sanutUs - the dog's (something)
* THE PRONOUNS *
1 zel zul
2 tes tus
3 lem lum
Relative pronouns introduce a clause that describes a noun. Ancient Kakak has two; nuk used to refer to living things, and tAm used for non-living objects.
English : The man who has the helmet is running
Anc. Kakak: KetAs pun neluk nuk lonUk piluz
Literal Trans.: man is run(PreImp) who helmet have(PrePer)
English : The shop that has the book is open.
Anc. Kakak: KinIn pun zepum tAm talom piluz
Literal Trans.: shop is open(PreImp) that book have(PrePer)
* THE VERB *
i - o
Past Imperfect e - o
Present Perfect i - u (infinitive)
Present Imperfect e - u
Future Perfect i - a (imperative??)
Future Imperfect e - a
PERSON AGREEMENT (always with the ABS)
1 za- zu-
2 ta- tu-
3 le- lo-
These are verbs used with other verbs to form expressions of mood, such as the words 'can.' 'may,' 'might' and 'should'.
sip (may) expresses permission to do something.
pAn (must) expresses complusion; it may also mean "should"
lin (can) expresses the ability to do something.
kut (might) expresses conditional action; something that can be done if something else is done first
tak (would) expresses determination to do something in a conditional sentence.
The Verb pun: This word is loosely the same as 'is' or 'to be'in English. Its main use is as a helping verb passive sentences. Its tense is consider the same as the verb it helps.
English : I stole the book
Anc. Kakak: Zalu talom ziton
Literal Trans.: I book steal(PasPer)
English : The book was stolen
Anc. Kakak: Talom pun zatun
Literal Trans.: book was steal(PasPer)
Pun is also used to denote equivalency between two nouns and/or pronouns: Zulu kazUk pun- You are a fighter.
Pun is never used to express the possession of a quality or location. Instead, piluz (to have) and mipuk (to stand) are used, respectively, for these purposes: satul lepiluz translates literally to "slowness he have" meaning "He is slow"
* MODIFIERS *
words that describe other words. Commonly known as adjectives and adverbs.
Any Modifier can modify either a noun or a verb, depending on its location within the sentence. They come before the word they are to modify.
English: The fast man runs slowly
Anc. Kakak: Tusal ketAs setul neluk
Literal Trans.: Quickness man slowness run(PreImp)
English: The slow man runs quickly
Anc. Kakak: Satul ketAs tusal neluk
Literal Trans: Slowness man quickness run(PreImp)
* SYNTAX *
* EXAMPLES *
The dog walked
The dog kissed